Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 75, No 4 (2017)

La aceptación pública de las aplicaciones de las Pilas de Combustible de Hidrógeno en Europa


https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2017.75.4.17.01

Christian Oltra
CIEMAT, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9118-4655

Elisabeth Dütschke
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovations Research ISI, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1882-1934

Roser Sala
CIEMAT, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3227-7111

Uta Schneider
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovations Research ISI, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6442-1515

Paul Upham
Leuphana University, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1998-4698

Resumen


Cada vez hay más conciencia entre los responsables políticos y la industria de que la “aceptación social” es un tema clave en el despliegue de tecnologías e infraestructuras energéticas de baja emisión de carbono en Europa. El desarrollo de las tecnologías de pilas de combustible de hidrógeno (HFC) implica aplicaciones a pequeña escala en el sector residencial y del transporte, así como infraestructuras de gran escala, cuya incorporación socio-técnica estará influenciada por el público y las partes interesadas. Investigaciones anteriores sobre la aceptación pública han trabajado sobre las percepciones públicas de las HFC en países específicos. Aquí presentamos datos de encuesta a escala multinacional, utilizando un enfoque socio-psicológico multivariado. Nos centramos particularmente en las diferencias entre países en cuanto al autoconocimiento y familiaridad, la actitud global y el apoyo en relación con las aplicaciones de HFC móviles y residenciales. Nuestros datos muestran que menos de la mitad de la población en los siete países son conscientes de la existencia de tecnologías de hidrógeno y pilas de combustible en el contexto de la producción de energía. El nivel de familiaridad con ambas aplicaciones es bajo, y menos del 10% de los encuestados se consideran familiarizados con estas aplicaciones. En general, los encuestados de los siete países tienen una actitud inicial positiva hacia las tecnologías HFC y es probable que acepten y apoyen la adopción de pilas de combustible residenciales y HFCEVs. Las siete poblaciones estudiadas son similares en sus actitudes hacia las tecnologías de HFC, pero hay pequeñas diferencias en la conciencia y aceptación de las aplicaciones de HFC entre países. Finalmente encontramos que el efecto positivo y negativo, los beneficios percibidos, la preferencia por las tecnologías alternativas, la confianza y la edad tienen una correlación significativa con la aceptación de las aplicaciones de HFC. Consideramos las implicaciones de estas diferencias para la aceptación pública de las HFC.

Palabras clave


Actitudes; Encuesta; Tecnologías energéticas

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