Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 75, No 1 (2017)

¿Qué dice la investigación social sobre las pruebas educativas externas?

Rafael Feito Alonso

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/ris.2017.75.1.15.89

Resumen


Las pruebas externas estandarizadas (high-stakes tests, en la jerga anglosajona), que han de ser aprobadas para obtener una credencial de Educación Secundaria, han dado lugar a amplios debates en los países en que se han implantado. Especialmente en el caso de los Estados Unidos de América se ha detectado que este tipo de test ha provocado una reducción considerable de los contenidos curriculares, los cuales se han centrado en exceso en lo que se pueda preguntar en los propios test. Al mismo tiempo, se ha producido una modificación sustancial en los procesos de aprendizaje que, centrados en unos conocimientos de tipo fáctico, se alejan de la experimentación, el debate o el trabajo en equipo. Pese a que hay discrepancias, en general, la investigación ha detectado que es dudoso que estas pruebas mejoren los resultados académicos. Sin embargo, se incrementa el porcentaje de abandono escolar temprano. Ha sido frecuente cierto nivel de fraude en las pruebas por parte de los directivos escolares, evitando que se presentasen a los test los alumnos de menor rendimiento académico. La revisión de investigaciones que se lleva a cabo en este artículo permite contextuar el debate que en España se ha generado en torno a las pruebas externas que plantea la Ley Orgánica de Mejora de la Calidad Educativa (LOMCE) aprobada en 2013.

Palabras clave


Educación comparada; High-stakes; Legislación escolar; LOMCE; Pruebas externas; Reforma educativa

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Referencias


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