Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 74, No 4 (2016)

Mecanismos para entender los logros de los movimientos: Conversación, desplazamiento y disrupción

Robert M. Fishman, David W. Everson

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/ris.2016.74.4.045

Resumen


Buena parte de la investigación en movimientos sociales tiende a asumir - y en algunos casos argumenta de manera explícita - que la disrupción es el principal mecanismo a través del cual los movimientos de protesta obtienen importantes concesiones por parte de quienes detentan el poder. No obstante, algunos estudios y mucha evidencia empírica proporcionan una base sólida para sostener la existencia de otras vías para el logro de los movimientos sociales. Si bien la importancia del discurso y el enmarcado se ha puesto de manifiesto en una serie de estudios, nosotros sostenemos que el significado completo que la palabra tiene para el éxito de los movimientos se capta mejor a partir del concepto de “conversación” y un examen de sus condiciones de viabilidad. La sustitución o el desplazamiento de la titularidad del poder, a pesar de ser una vía menos frecuente para el logro de los movimientos de protesta, también merece atención conceptual y empírica. En este artículo hacemos conceptualmente explícitas este conjunto de distinciones, diferenciando de manera analítica entre estos tres mecanismos de éxito de un movimiento y delineando las condiciones requeridas por cada uno de ellos para demostrarse viable y “útil”. Nos basamos en extensos ejemplos extraídos de movimientos y eventos de protesta en los Estados Unidos, España y Portugal, utilizando este material empírico así como la literatura teórica existente como base para construir nuestro argumento conceptual sobre la distinción de estos tres mecanismos como tipos ideales y las condiciones que les permiten ser operativos. También planteamos la cuestión de hasta qué punto – y cuándo - los actores de movimientos pueden combinar con éxito estos mecanismos o verse forzados a seguir una u otra de estas vías hacia el logro de una forma relativamente “pura”.

Palabras clave


Discurso; Protesta; Protesta Pacífica; Protestas Anti-austeridad; Resultados de los Movimientos Sociales

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