Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 77, No 4 (2019)

La seguridad y el estado democrático liberal. Criminalizando la política de los jóvenes


https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2019.77.4.19.003

Judith Bessant
School of Global Urban Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia
orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7385-5358

Maria Grasso
Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Sheffield, Reino Unido
orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6911-2241

Resumen


Las políticas de austeridad fueron la reacción de muchas democracias liberales ante la crisis económica iniciada en 2008. Esto provocó un aumento de la contestación y de la movilización social, protagonizada en muchos casos por personas jóvenes. Como reacción a su vez, muchos gobiernos desarrollaron políticas con el objetivo de combatir estas formas de movilización, incluyendo la criminalización de la protesta. Este artículo explora las prácticas por parte de instituciones y el Estado encaminadas a eliminar y criminalizar formas de activismo tales como las revueltas estudiantiles en Quebec, (la “maple spring”), o el movimiento de los indignados en España. A pesar de las diferencias entre ambos países, Canadá puede ser descrito como una ‘democracia liberal madura’ mientras España encaja mejor con la etiqueta de ‘democracia liberal emergente’, en los dos países se ha promovido la criminalización de las prácticas de muchos jóvenes que buscaban ejercitar su derecho constitucional de manifestarse y expresarse libremente a través de la acción colectiva. Aunque en cierto sentido estas prácticas pueden ser explicadas atendiendo a ciertas contradicciones inherentes a las democracias, las políticas criminalizadoras también reflejan algunos prejuicios muy arraigados contra las personas jóvenes. Fundamentamos esta afirmación en el hecho que los jóvenes han causado siempre una atención desproporcionada por parte de la policía y el sistema de justicia legal cuando se veían vinculados con formas convencionales de delincuencia. ¿Qué papel desempeñó en el desarrollo de políticas criminalizadoras el hecho de que las protestas ciudadanas contra la austeridad en 2011 y 2012 tuvieran un marcado componente de protesta juvenil? La discusión sobre las ideas preconcebidas sobre la edad, y la creencia establecida entre algunos sectores de la población de que la juventud ha de ser ‘vigilada de cerca’ permite avanzar en la comprensión de las formas de respuesta estatal cuando son las personas jóvenes las que aspiran a participar activamente en la política.

Palabras clave


Criminalización; Democracia Liberal; Disenso; Estado; Personas jóvenes; Política; Seguridad

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