Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 76, No 1 (2018)

Construyendo Capital Social: cómo las noticias y la fuerza de los vínculos en la discusión política fomentan la reciprocidad

Alberto Ardèvol-Abreu
University of Vienna, Media Innovation Lab (MiLab), Austria

Trevor Diehl
University of Vienna, Media Innovation Lab (MiLab), Austria

Homero Gil de Zúñiga
University of Vienna, Media Innovation Lab (MiLab) / Universidad Diego Portales, Austria


La reciprocidad, un principio social que emerge en los intercambios no negociados entre personas, es posiblemente un constructo clave en la generación de capital social. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han abordado de manera empírica esta conexión. Sobre la base de un modelo Orientación-Estímulo-Razonamiento-Orientación-Respuesta, esta investigación presenta una propuesta teórica y empírica en la que la exposición a noticias y la fuerza de los vínculos en la discusión política contribuyen al desarrollo de la reciprocidad y del capital social. Tras el análisis de los datos de un estudio de panel realizado en dos olas, los resultados sugieren que la reciprocidad es un fuerte predictor del capital social. Además, la exposición a noticias de los medios de comunicación se relaciona de manera directa con la reciprocidad; con la discusión política, tanto con vínculos fuertes como débiles; y con el capital social. Por otro lado, la discusión con vínculos débiles y la reciprocidad funcionan como mediadores de la relación entre exposición a noticias y capital social.

Palabras clave

Capital social; Discusión con vínculos débiles; Discusión con vínculos fuertes; Exposición a noticias; Reciprocidad

Texto completo:



Ammann, R. 2011. "Reciprocity, social curation, and the emergence of blogging: A study in community formation." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 22: 26-36.

Ardèvol-Abreu, A., T. Diehl and H. Gil de Zú-iga. 2017. "Antecedents of internal political efficacy incidental news exposure online and the mediating role of political discussion." Politics 1-19.

Baer, J. S., A. Stacy and M. Larimer. 1991. "Biases in the perception of drinking norms among college students." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 52: 580-586. PMid:1758185

Bandura, A. 2001. "Social cognitive theory of mass communication." Media Psychology 3(3): 265-299.

Beaudoin, C. E. 2011. "News effects on bonding and bridging social capital: An empirical study relevant to ethnicity in the United States." Communication Research 38(2): 155-178.

Benhabib, S. 1996. "Toward a deliberative model of democratic legitimacy". Pp. 67-94 in Democracy and difference: Contesting the boundaries of the political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. PMid:12321188

Blau, P. M. 1964. Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. PMCid:PMC1423452

Bode, L., E. K. Vraga, P. Borah and D. V. Shah. 2014. "A new space for political behavior: Political social networking and its democratic consequences." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 19(3): 414-429.

Bucy, E. P. and R. L. Holbert (eds.). 2014. Sourcebook for political communication research: Methods, measures, and analytical techniques. New York: Routledge. PMCid:PMC4242241

Bourdieu, P. 2011. Las estrategias de la reproducción social. Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno.

Cho, J., D. V. Shah, J. M. McLeod, D. M. McLeod, R. M. Scholl and M. R. Gotlieb. 2009. "Campaigns, reflection, and deliberation: Advancing an O-S-R-O-R model of communication effects." Communication Theory 19(1): 66- 88.

Coleman, J. S. 1988. "Social capital in the creation of human capital." American Journal of Sociology 94: 95-120.

Coleman, J. S. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Cropanzano, R. and M. S. Mitchell. 2005. "Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review." Journal of Management 31(6): 874-900.

Cruz, M. G., D. D. Henningsen and M. L. M. Williams. 2000. "The presence of norms in the absence of groups? The impact of normative influence under hidden-profile conditions." Human Communication Research 26: 104-124.

Delli Carpini, M. X. and S. Keeter. 1996. What Americans don't know about politics and why it matters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Emerson, R. M. 1976. "Social exchange theory." Annual Review of Sociology 2: 335-362.

Eveland, W. P. Jr. 2001. "The cognitive mediation model of learning from the news: Evidence from non-election, off-year election, and presidential election contexts." Communication Research 28: 571-601.

Eveland, W. P. Jr. 2004. "The effect of political discussion in producing informed citizens: The roles of information, motivation, and elaboration." Political Communication 21: 177-193.

Gamson, W. A., D. Croteau, W. Hoynes and T. Sasson. 1992. "Media images and the social construction of reality." Annual Review of Sociology 18: 373-393.

Gastil, J. and M. Xenos. 2010. "Of attitudes and engagement: Clarifying the reciprocal relationship between civic attitudes and political participation." Journal of Communication 60: 318-343.

Gerbner, G. 1998. "Cultivation analysis: An overview." Mass Communication & Society 1(3-4): 175-194.

Gil de Zú-iga, H., B. Weeks and A. Ardèvol-Abreu. 2017. "Effects of the news-finds-me perception in communication: Social media use implications for news seeking and learning about politics. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication 22(3): 105-123.

Gil de Zú-iga, H., N. Jung and S. Valenzuela. 2012. "Social media use for news and individuals' social capital, civic engagement and political participation." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 17(3): 319-336.

Gil de Zú-iga, H. and S. Valenzuela. 2010. "Who uses Facebook and why". Pp. 31-37 in Facebook and philosophy: What's on your mind? Chicago: Open Court Publishing.

Gil de Zú-iga, H. and S. Valenzuela. 2011. "The mediating path to a stronger citizenship: Online and offline networks, weak ties, & civic engagement." Communication Research 38(3): 397-421.

Gil de Zú-iga, H., T. Diehl and A. Ardévol-Abreu. 2017. "Internal, external, and government political efficacy: Effects on news Use, discussion, and political participation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 61(3), 574- 596.

Goldstein, J. S. and J. R. Freeman. 1990. Three-way street: Strategic reciprocity in world politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gouldner, A. W. 1960. "The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement." American Sociological Review 25(2): 161- 178.

Granovetter, 1983. "The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited." Sociological Theory 1(1): 201-233.

Hively, M. H. and W. P. Eveland Jr. 2009. "Contextual antecedents and political consequences of adolescent political discussion, discussion elaboration, and network diversity." Political Communication 26(1): 30-47.

Holton, A. E., M. Coddington, S. C. Lewis and H. Gil de Zú-iga. 2015. "Reciprocity and the news: the role of personal and social media reciprocity in news creation and consumption." International Journal of Communication 9: 2526-2547.

Huckfeldt, R. and J. Sprague. 1991. "Discussant effects on vote choice: Intimacy, structure, and interdependence." The Journal of Politics 53(1): 122-158.

Iyengar, S. and K. S. Hahn. 2009. "Red media, blue media: Evidence of ideological selectivity in media use." Journal of Communication 59(1): 19-39.

Jung, N., Y. Kim and H. Gil de Zú-iga. 2011. "The mediating role of knowledge and efficacy in the effects of communication on political participation." Mass Communication and Society 14(4): 407-430.

Katz, E. and M. Gurevitch. 1974. "Utilization of mass communication by the individual." Pp. 19-32 in The uses of mass communication. London: Faber.

Kim, J. W., J. Schweitzer and J. D. Lim. 2002. "The causes of social capital in a neighborhood community context: implications for neighborhood community building in South Korea." International Journal of Urban Sciences 6(1): 1-11.

Kincaid, D. L. 2004. "From innovation to social norm: Bounded normative influence." Journal of Health Communication 9(1): 37-57. PMid:14960403

La Due Lake, R. and R. Huckfeldt. 1998. "Social capital, social networks, and political participation." Political Psychology 19(3): 567-584.

Latane, B. and J. M. Darley. 1968. "Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10(3), 215-221. PMid:5704479

Lévi-Strauss, C. 1969. The Elementary Structures of Kinship, rev. ed. Boston: Beacon.

Lewis, S. C., A. E. Holton and M. Coddington. 2014. "Reciprocal journalism: A concept of mutual exchange between journalists and audiences." Journalism Practice 8(2): 229- 241.

Lin, N. 2008. "A network theory of social capital." Pp. 50-69 in The handbook of social capital. London: Oxford University Press.

Markus, H. and R. B. Zajonc. 1985. "The cognitive perspective in social psychology." Pp 137-230 in Handbook of social psychology. New York: Random House. PMCid:PMC1415727

McLeod, J. M., K. Daily, Z. S. Guo, W. P. Eveland, J. Bayer, S. Yang and H. Wang. 1996. "Community integration, local media use, and democratic processes." Communication Research 23(2): 179-209.

McLeod, J. M., G. Kosicki and D. M. McLeod. 1994. "The expanding boundaries of political communication effects." Pp. 123-162 in Media effects, advances in theory and research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

McLeod, J. M., D. A. Scheufele and P. Moy. 1999. "Community, communication, and participation: the role of mass media and interpersonal discussion in local political participation". Political Communication 16(3): 315-336.

McLeod, J. M., J. Zubric, H. Keum, S. Deshpande, J. Cho, S. Stein et al. 2001, August. Reflecting and connecting: Testing a communication mediation model of civic participation. Paper presented to the AEJMC annual meeting, Washington, DC.

Molm, L. D. 2010. "The structure of reciprocity." Social Psychology Quarterly 73(2): 119-131.

Molm, L. D., J. L. Collett and D. R. Schaefer. 2007. "Building solidarity through generalized exchange: A theory of reciprocity." American Journal of Sociology 113(1): 205-242.

Molm, L. D., G. Peterson and N. Takahashi. 1999. "Power in negotiated and reciprocal exchange." American Sociological Review 64(6): 876–889.

Molm, L. D., N. Takahashi and G. Peterson. 2000. "Risk and trust in social exchange: An experimental test of a classical proposition." American Journal of Sociology 105(5): 1396-1427.

Molyneux, L., K. Vasudevan and H. Gil de Zú-iga. 2015. "Gaming social capital: Exploring civic value in multiplayer video games." Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication 20(4): 381-399.

Mondak, J. J. 2010. Personality and the foundations of political behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Moy, P. and J. Gastil. 2006. "Predicting deliberative conversation: The impact of discussion networks, media use, and political cognitions." Political Communication 23(4): 443-460.

Mutz, D. C. 2002. "The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political participation." American Journal of Political Science 46(4): 838-855.

Perugini, M., M. Gallucci, F. Presaghi, and A. P. Ercolani. 2003."The personal norm of reciprocity". European Journal of Personality 17: 251–283.

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2013. July 2013 Political Survey Methodology. Retrieved from http: //

Prior, M. 2007. Post-broadcast democracy: How media choice increases inequality in political involvement and polarizes elections. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Putnam, R. D. 1995. "Bowling alone: America's declining social capital." Journal of Democracy 6(1): 65-78.

Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Quintelier, E. and J. W. van Deth. 2014. "Supporting democracy: Political participation and political attitudes. Exploring causality using panel data." Political Studies 62: 153-171.

Schoemaker, P. J. and S. D. Reese. 2014. Mediating the message in the 21st century. A media sociology perspective. New York: Routledge.

Rimal, R. N. and K. Real. 2005. "How behaviors are influenced by perceived norms a test of the theory of normative social behavior." Communication Research 32(3): 389- 414.

Shah, D. V. 1998. "Civic engagement, interpersonal trust, and television use: An individual-level assessment of social capital." Political Psychology 19(3): 469-496.

Shah, D. V., J. Cho, S. Nah, M. R. Gotlieb, H. Hwang, n. J. Lee, R. M. Scholl and D. M. McLeod. 2007. "Campaign ads, online messaging, and participation: Extending the communication mediation model." Journal of Communication 57(4): 676-703.

Shah, D. V., N. Kwak and R. L. Holbert. 2001. "'Connecting' and 'disconnecting' with civic life: Patterns of internet use and the production of social capital." Political Communication 18(2): 141-162.

Shah, D. V., J. M. McLeod and S. H. Yoon. 2001. "Communication, context, and community. An exploration of print, broadcast, and internet influences." Communication Research 28(4): 464-506.

Sotirovic, M. and J. M. McLeod. 2001. "Values, communication behavior, and political participation." Political Communication 18(3): 273-300.

Strömbäck, J. 2008. "Four phases of mediatization: An analysis of the mediatization of politics." The International Journal of Press/Politics, 13(3): 228-246.

Valenzuela, S., Y. Kim and H. Gil de Zú-iga. 2012. "Social networks that matter: exploring the role of political discussion for online political participation." International Journal of Public Opinion Research 24(2): 163-184.

Wellman, B. 1997. "An electronic group is virtually a social network". Pp. 179-205 in Culture of the internet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wellman, B., A. Quan-Haase, J. Witte and K. Hampton. 2001. "Does the internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment." American Behavioral Scientist 45(3): 436-455.

Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.

Contacte con la revista

Soporte técnico