Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 72, No 2 (2014)

¿Cuál es el mejor cuidado para los adultos dependientes no institucionalizados? Fuentes de cuidado y percepción de necesidades no satisfechas en España


https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2012.09.12

Jesús Rogero-García
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España

Karim Ahmed-Mohamed
Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales (CCHS-CSIC), España

Resumen


Los objetivos de este trabajo son: (1) identificar el proveedor de cuidado (informal, privado o público) que consigue una menor percepción de necesidades no cubiertas entre los adultos dependientes en España, (2) identificar qué factores se relacionan con una mayor percepción de necesidades no cubiertas en cada situación, atendiendo al proveedor de cuidado. Se analizó una muestra de 4.766 adultos dependientes de la Encuesta sobre Discapacidades, Autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia (EDAD 2008). Los adultos dependientes que recibieron únicamente cuidado privado tuvieron menos probabilidades de percibir sus necesidades no cubiertas, en comparación con quienes recibieron cualquier otro tipo de cuidado. Quienes recibieron cuidado solo de servicios sociales tuvieron más probabilidades de percibir sus necesidades como no cubiertas. La percepción de necesidades no cubiertas está relacionada con las características de la persona dependiente, del cuidador y del contexto del cuidado. Los resultados sugieren que el diseño de políticas públicas no debe dar por supuesto que las personas dependientes prefieren el cuidado familiar por encima de otras fórmulas de atención y muestran que los servicios públicos de cuidado son percibidos como insatisfactorios.

Palabras clave


Apoyo social; Cuidado informal; Cuidado pagado; Personas con discapacidad; Servicios de cuidado

Texto completo:


PDF

Referencias


Ahmed, K., Rojo, F., Fernández-Mayoralas, G., Prieto, M. E., Rodríguez, V. and Lardiés, R. 2009. "Red familiar y distancia afectiva en la calidad de vida de la población mayor." Pp. 375-385 in L. López Trigal and A. Abellán García (eds) Despoblación, envejecimiento y territorio: un análisis sobre la población española. León: Universidad de León.

Allen, S. M. and Mor, V. 1997. "The Prevalence and Consequences of Unmet Need Contrasts Between Older and Younger Adults with Disability." Medical Care 35(11): 1132-1148.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199711000-00005

Anttonen, A. and Sipilä, J. 1996. "European Social Care Services: Is it Possible to Identify Models?" Journal of European Social Policy 6(2): 87-100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879600600201

Asadi-Lari M., Tamburini, M. and Gray, D. 2004. "Patients' Needs, Satisfaction, and Health Related Quality of Life: Towards a Comprehensive Model." Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2: 32.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-2-32

Bauld, L., Chesterman, J. and Judge, K. 2000. "Measuring Satisfaction with Social Care amongst Older Service Users: Issues from the Literature." Health and Social Care in the Community 8(5): 316-324.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2000.00256.x

Bettio, F. and Plantenga, J. 2004. "Comparing care regimes in Europe." Feminist Economics 10(1): 85-113.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354570042000198245

Billings, J. R. and Cowley, S. 1995. "Approaches to Community Needs Assessment: A Literature Review." Journal of Advanced Nursing 22: 721-730.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.22040721.x

Bittman, M., Fast, J., Fisher, K. and Thomson, C. 2004. "Making the Invisible Visible: The Life and Time(s) of Informal Caregivers." Pp. 69-89 in N. Folbre and M. Bittman (eds) Family Time: The Social Organisation of Care. London and New York: Routledge.

Bradshaw, J. 1974. "The Concept of Social Need." Ekistics 37: 184-187.

Brouwer, W., Van Exel, N. J. A., Koopmanschap, M. A. and Rutten, F. F. H. 1999. "The Valuation of Informal Care in Economic Appraisal. A Consideration of Individual Choice and Societal Costs of Time." International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 15(1): 147-160.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266462399152346

Call, K. T., Finch, M.A., Huck, S. M. and Kane, R. A. 1999. "Caregiver Burden from a Social Exchange Perspective: Caring for Older People after Hospital Discharge." Journal of Marriage and the Family 61(3): 688-699.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353570

Cantor, M. 1979. "Neighbors and Friends." Research on Aging 1: 434-463.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016402757914002

Carretero, S., Garcés, J., Ródenas, F. and Sanjosé, V. 2009. "The Informal Caregiver's Burden of Dependent People: Theory and Empirical Review." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 49: 74-79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2008.05.004

Casado-Marín, D. 2006. "La atención a la dependencia en España." Gaceta Sanitaria 20: 135-142.http://dx.doi.org/10.1157/13086037

Cowley, S., Bergen, A., Young, A. and Kavanagh, A. 2000. "A Taxonomy of Needs Assessment, Elicited from a Multiple Case Study of Community Nursing Education and Practice." Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(1): 126-134.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01252.x

Crow, R., Gage, H. and Hampsom, S. 2002. "The measurement of satisfaction with healthcare: implication for practice from a systematic review of the literature." Health Technology Assessment 6: 1-244.

Daatland, S. O. 1997. "Welfare Policies for Older People in Transition? Emerging Trends and Comparative Perspectives." Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare 6: 153-161.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.1997.tb00184.x

Desai, M. M., Lentzner, H. R., Weeks, J. D. 2001. "Unmet Need for Personal Assistance with Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults." The Gerontologist 41(1): 82-88.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/41.1.82

Donabedian, A. 1988. "The Quality of Care: How Can it be Addressed?" Journal of the American Medical Association 260: 1743-1748.http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03410120089033

Dubuc, N., Dubois, M. F., Raîche, M., Gueye, N. D. R. and Hébert, R. 2011. "Meeting the Home-Care Needs of Disabled Older Persons Living in the Community: Does Integrated Services Delivery Make a Difference?" BMC Geriatrics 11(1): 67.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-11-67

Dwyer, J. W., Le, G. R. and Jankowski, T. B. 1994. "Reciprocity, Elder Satisfaction, and Caregiver Stress and Burden: The Exchange of Aid in the Family Caregiving Relationship." Journal of Marriage and the Family 56(1): 35-43.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352699

Escuredo, B. 2007. "Las políticas sociales de dependencia en España: contribuciones y consecuencias para los ancianos y sus cuidadores informales." Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas 119: 65-90.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/40184787

Esping-Andersen, G. 1999. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198742002.001.0001

European Commission. 2009. 2009 Ageing Report: Economic and Budgetary Projections for the EU-27 Member States (2008-2060). Brussels: European Commission.

Fast, J., Keating, N., Otfinowski, P. and Derksen, L. 2004. "Characteristic of Family/Friend Care Networks of Frail Seniors." Canadian Journal on Aging 23(1): 5-19.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/cja.2004.0003

Fundación CIREM. 2004. Imagen social y laboral de las personas con discapacidad en España. Madrid: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales.

Galvin, R. 2004. "Challenging the Need for Gratitude: Comparisons Between Paid and Unpaid Care for Disabled People." Journal of Sociology 40(2): 137-55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1440783304043453

Geron, S. M., Smith, K., Tennstedt, S., Jette, A., Chassler, D. and Kasten, L. 2000. "The Home Care Satisfaction Measure: A Client-Centered Approach to Assessing the Satisfaction of Frail Older Adults with Home Care Services." Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 55B(5): S259-S270.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/55.5.S259

Gilbert, A., Lankshear, G. and Petersen, A. 2007. "Older Family-Carers' Views on the Future Accommodation Needs of Relatives who have an Intellectual Disability." International Journal of Social Welfare 17: 54-64.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2007.00485.x

González, B. and Urbanos, R. M. 2004. "Oferta pública y privada de servicios sanitarios por comunidades autónomas." Gaceta Sanitaria 18(1): 82-89.http://dx.doi.org/10.1157/13062255

Hardy, B., Young, R. and Wistow, G. 2001. "Dimensions of Choice in the Assessment and Care Management Process: The Views of Older People, Carers and Care Managers." Health and Social Care in the Community 7(6): 483-491.http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.1999.00217.x

Harlton, S-V., Fast, J. and Keating, N. 1998. "Defining Eldercare for Policy and Practice: Perspectives Matter." Family Relations 47(3): 281-288.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584978

Harrel, F. E. 2001. Regression Modeling Strategies with Applications to Linear Models Logistic Regression and Survival Analysis. New York: Springer.

Hosmer, D. and Lemeshow, S.1989. Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

IMSERSO. 2005. Cuidados a las personas mayores en los hogares españoles. El entorno familiar. Madrid: IMSERSO.

IMSERSO-CSIC. 2012. Estadísticas del sistema para la autonomía y la atención a la dependencia. Situación a 1 de enero de 2012. Madrid: IMSERSO-CSIC.

INE. 2008. Encuesta de Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia 2008. Metodología. Madrid: National Statistics Institute.

IOÉ, C. and Rodríguez, P. 1995. Cuidados en la vejez. El apoyo informal. Madrid: INSERSO.

Isaacs, B. and Neville, Y. 1976. "The Needs of Older People.The 'Interval' as a Method of Measurement." British Journal of Preventive & Social Medicine 30: 79-85.

Jiménez-Martín, S. and Vilaplana, C. 2010. "A Double Simple Selection Model for Unmet Needs, Formal Care and Informal Caregiving Hours of Dependent People in Spain." FEDEA Working Papers 2010-25.

Lai, D. W. L. 2004. "Impact of Culture on Depressive Symptoms of Elderly Chinese Immigrants." The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 49(12): 820-827.

Langa, D. and Martínez, D. 2009. Redes familiares, cuidados y clases sociales en Andalucía. Madrid: Alianza.

Larizgoitia, A. 2004. Eurofamcare.National Background Report for Spain. Hamburg: Eurofamcare.

Lewinter, M. 1999. Spreading the burden of gratitude: elderly between family and state. Doctoral dissertation, Sociological Institute, Copenhagen.

Lightfoot, J. 1995. "Identifying Needs and Setting Priorities: Issues of Theory, Policy and Practice." Health & Social Care in the Community 3: 105-114.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.1995.tb00011.x

Matthias, R. E., Benjamin, A. E. 2008. "Paying Friends, Family Members, or Strangers to Be Home- Based Personal Assistants." Journal of Disability Policy Studies 18(4): 205-218.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1044207307311526

McWalter, G., Toner, H., Corser, A., Eastwood, J., Marshall, M. and Turvey, T. 1994. "Needs and Needs Assessment: Their Components and Definitions with Reference to Dementia." Health & Social Care in the Community 2: 213-219.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.1994.tb00167.x

Mestheneos, E. and Triantafillou, J. 2005. Supporting Family Carers of Older People in Europe - the Pan-European Background. Hamburg: Eurofamcare.

Montgomery, R. J. V. 1999. "The Family Role in the Context of Long-Term Care." Journal of Aging and Health 11(3): 383-416http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439901100307

Montoro, J. 1999. "Las consecuencias psicosociales del cuidado informal a personas mayores." Revista Internacional de Sociología 23: 7-29.

Norusis, M. 2005. SPSS 13.0. Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Ng, G. T. 2007. "Learning from Japanese Experience in Aged Care Policy." Asian Social Work and Policy Review 1(1): 36-51.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-1411.2007.00004.x

Otero, A., García de Yebenes, M., Rodriguez-Laso, A. and Zunzunegui, M. V. 2003. "Unmet Home Care Needs among Community-Dwelling Elderly People in Spain." Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 15(3): 234-242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03324504

Pérez, A., Paiewonsky, D. and García Domínguez, M. 2008. Cruzando Fronteras II. Migración y desarrollo desde una perspectiva de género. Madrid: Instituto de la Mujer/UN-INSTRAW.

Pommer, E., Woittiez, I. and Stevens, J. 2007. Comparing Care. The Care of the Elderly in Ten EU-countries. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP.

Quail, J., Addona, V., Wolfson, C., Podoba, J., Lévesque, L. and Dupuis, J. 2007. "Association of Unmet Need with Self-Rated Health in a Community Dwelling Cohort of Disabled Seniors 75 Years of Age and Over." European Journal of Ageing 4(1): 45-55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10433-007-0042-8

Riess-Sherwood, P., Given, B. A. and Given, Ch.W. 2002. "Who Cares for the Caregiver: Strategies to Provide Support." Home Health Care Management and Practice 14(2): 110-21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1084822302014002005

Rodríguez, V. (ed.) 2012. Inmigración y cuidados de mayores en la Comunidad de Madrid. Madrid: Fundación BBVA.

Rogero-García J. 2011. "El cuidado a las personas dependientes por discapacidad en España y el papel de las familias, a examen." Pp.79-96 in D. Casado (ed) Acción y políticas de apoyo a las familias. Crianza, atención a la dependencia y renovación demográfica. Barcelona: Hacer Editorial.

Rogero-García J. and Rosenberg M. W. 2011. "Paid and unpaid support received by co-resident informal caregivers attending to community-dwelling older adults in Spain." European Journal of Ageing 8(2): 95-107.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10433-011-0184-6

Rogero-García, J. and Ahmed-Mohamed, K. 2011. "Satisfaction of Needs of Disabled People 60 and over According to Care Provider. Spain, 2008." Revista Española de Salud Pública 85(6): 541-553.http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1135-57272011000600004

Sitzia, J. and Wood, N. 1997. "Patient Satisfaction: A Review of Issues and Concepts." Social Science and Medicine 45(12): 1829-1843.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(97)00128-7

Spanish Law 39/2006. 2006. Official State Gazette (BOE).

Sprangers, M. A. G. and Aaronson, N. K. 1992. "The Role of Health Care Providers and Significant Others in Evaluating the Quality of Life of Patients with Chronic Disease: A Review." Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 45(7): 743-760.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(92)90052-O

Thorslund, M., Bergmark, Å. and Parker, M. G. 1997. "Difficult Decisions on Care and Services for Elderly People: The Dilemma of Setting Priorities in the Welfare State." Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare 6: 197-206.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.1997.tb00189.x

Todorov, A. and Kirchner, C. 2000. "`Bias in Proxies´ Reports of Disability Data from the National Health Interview Survey on Disability." American Journal of Public Health 90(8): 1248-1253.http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.90.8.1248

Tomás Aznar, C., Moreno Aznar, L., Germán Bes, C., Alcalá Nalváiz, T. and Andrés Esteban, E. 2002. "Dependencia y necesidades de cuidados no cubiertas de las personas mayores de una zona de salud de Zaragoza." Revista Española de Salud Pública 76(3): 215-226.http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1135-57272002000300006

Vlachantoni, A., Shaw, R., Willis, R., Evandrou, M., Falkingham, J. and Luff, R. 2011. Measuring Unmet Need for Social Care among Older People. Population Trends 145: 1-17. Office for National Statistics.http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pt.2011.17

Walker, A. J. and Pratt, C. C. 1991. "Daughters' Help to Mothers: Intergenerational Aid versus Caregiving." Journal of Marriage and the Family 53(1): 3-12.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353129

Walker, A. J., Pratt, C. C. and Eddy, L. 1995. "Informal Caregiving to Ageing Family Members: A Critical Review." Family Relations 44(4): 402-411.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584996

Willard, L. D. 1982. "Needs and Medicine." Journal of Medicine & Philosophy 7(3): 259-274.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmp/7.3.259

Williams, J., Lyons, B. and Rowland, D. 1997. "Unmet Long-Term Care Needs of Elderly People in the Community: A Review of the Literature." Home Health Care Services Quarterly 16(1): 93-119.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J027v16n01_07




Copyright (c) 2014 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista ris@iesa.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es