Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 77, No 1 (2019)

Meritocracia y desigualdad económica: Percepciones, preferencias e implicancias


https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2019.77.1.17.114

Juan C. Castillo
Universidad de Chile, Chile
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1265-7854

Alex Torres
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4501-9453

Jorge Atria
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7145-3048

Luis Maldonado
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0028-4766

Resumen


La idea de meritocracia está relacionada con la distribución de bienes y beneficios basada en el talento y esfuerzo individual, constituyendo un principio que legitima la distribución desigual de los recursos en sociedades modernas. Pese a las constantes referencias a la meritocracia en la investigación de desigualdad y estratificación social en sociología, existen pocos intentos conceptuales y empíricos que busquen entender hasta qué punto los individuos perciben y prefieren la meritocracia, así como también sus consecuencias. La presente investigación propone un marco conceptual y empírico para el estudio de las percepciones y preferencias meritocráticas que, posteriormente, es relacionado con una serie de variables relativas a la desigualdad social. Utilizando datos de la encuesta chilena “Justicia social y participación ciudadana” (N= 1.245), los resultados del análisis sugieren que las preferencias y percepciones de la meritocracia son constructos distintos y que quienes perciben un adecuado funcionamiento de la meritocracia también perciben menos desigualdad social.

Palabras clave


Desigualdad económica; Estatus social; Justicia distributiva; Meritocracia; Percepción de desigualdad

Texto completo:


HTML PDF XML

Referencias


Aalberg, T. 2003. Achieving Justice: Comparative Public Opinion on Income Distribution. Leiden: Brill.

Adams, J. 1963. "Towards an Understanding of Inequity". Journal of Abnormal Psychology 67(5): 422-436. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040968 PMid:14081885

Alon, S. y M. Tienda. 2007. "Diversity, Opportunity, and the Shifting Meritocracy in Higher Education". American Sociological Review 72(4): 487-511. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240707200401

Aristóteles 1999. Nichomaquean Ethics. Kitchener: Batoche Books.

Baer, D. y R. Lambert. 1982. "Education and support for dominant ideology". Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie 19(2): 173-195. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.1982.tb00859.x

Bell, D. 1977. Las contradicciones culturales del capitalismo. México: Alianza.

Bourdieu, P. y J. Passeron. 1990. Reproduction in education, society, and culture. Theory, culture & society, London: Sage Publications

Breen, R. y J. H. Goldthorpe. 2001. "Class, mobility and merit the experience of two British birth cohorts". European sociological review 17(2): 81-101. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/17.2.81

Castillo, J.C. 2012. "Is inequality becoming just? Changes in public opinion about economic inequality in Chile". Bulletin of Latin American Research 31(1): 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-9856.2011.00605.x

Costa-Lopes, R., J. F. Dovidio, C. R. Pereira y J. Jost. 2013. "Social psychological perspectives on the legitimation of social inequality: Past, present and future". European Journal of Social Psychology 43(4): 229-237. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.1966

Crosby, F. 1979. "Relative deprivation revisited: A response to Miller, Bolce, and Halligan". The American Political Science Review 73(1): 103-112. https://doi.org/10.2307/1954733

Davidov, E., B. Meuleman, J. Cieciuch, P. Schmidt y J. Billiet. 2014. "Measurement Equivalence in Cross-National Research". Annual Review of Sociology 40(1): 55-75. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043137

Deutsch, M. 1975. "Equity, Equality, and Need: What Determines Which Value Will Be Used as a Basis of Distributive Justice?". Journal of Social Issues 31(3): 137-150. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1975.tb01000.x

Duru-Bellat, M. y E. Tenret. 2012. "Who's for Meritocracy? Individual and Contextual Variations in the Faith". Comparative Education Review 56(2): 223-247. https://doi.org/10.1086/661290

Foster, M. D. y E. M. Tsarfati. 2005. "The Effects of Meritocracy Beliefs on Women's Well-Being After First- Time Gender Discrimination". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31(12): 1730-1738. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167205278709 PMid:16254092

Goldthorpe, J. H. 2003. "The myth of education-based meritocracy". New Economy 10(4): 234-239. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-0041.2003.00324.x

Hadjar, A. 2008. Meritokratie als Legitimationsprinzip. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Homans, G. 1974. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcouit Brace Jovanovich.

Horowitz, I. L. 2006. "The Moral Economy of Meritocracy: or, the Unanticipated Triumph of Reform and the Failure of Revolution in the West". The Political Quarterly 77: 127- 133. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-923X.2006.00789.x

Jaime-Castillo, A.M. e I. Marqués-Perales. 2014. "Beliefs about Social Fluidity and Preferences for Social Policies". Journal of Social Policy 43(3): 615-633. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279414000221

Janmaat, J.G. 2013. "Subjective inequality: A review of international comparative studies on people's views about inequality". European Journal of Sociology 54(3): 357- 389. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003975613000209

Jost, J., S. Blount, J. Pfeffer y G. Hunyadi. 2003. "Fair Market Ideology: Its Cognitive-Motivational Underpinnings". Research in Organizational Behavior 25: 53-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(03)25002-4

Kline, R. 2011. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.

Kluegel, J. y E. Smith. 1981. "Beliefs About Stratification". Annual Review of Sociology 7: 29-56. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.07.080181.000333

Krebs, A. 2000. Gleichheit oder Gerechtigkeit. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp.

Kunovich, S. y K. M. Slomczynski. 2007. "Systems of Distribution and a Sense of Equity: A Multilevel Analysis of Meritocratic Attitudes in Post-industrial Societies". European Sociological Review 23(5): 649-663. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcm026

Lane, R. 1986. "Market Justice, Political Justice". The American Political Science Review 80(2): 383-402. https://doi.org/10.2307/1958264

Lerner, M. 1980. The Belief in a Just World. A Fundamental Delusion. New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0448-5

Lipset, S. 1959. "Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy". The American Political Science Review 53(1): 69-105. https://doi.org/10.2307/1951731

Meltzer, A. y S. Richard. 1981. "A Rational Theory of the Size of Government". The Journal of Political Economy 89(5): 914-927. https://doi.org/10.1086/261013

Oxfam. (2016). An economy of the one percent. Recuperado desde: https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/economy-1

Page, O. 2013. "Mérito e igualdad de oportunidades". Revista de ciencia política (Santiago) 33(2): 533-545. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-090X2013000200006

Rawls, J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674369542

Reynolds, J. y H. Xian. 2014. "Perceptions of meritocracy in the land of opportunity". Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 36: 121-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2014.03.001

Rosseel, Y. (2012). "lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling". Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v048.i02

Sandel, M. 1998. Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810152

Schneider, S.M. y J. C. Castillo. 2015. "Poverty Attributions and the Perceived Justice of Income Inequality A Comparison of East and West Germany". Social Psychology Quarterly 78(3): 263-282. https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272515589298

Schröder, M. 2017. "Is Income Inequality Related to Tolerance for Inequality?". Social Justice Research 30(1): 23-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-016-0276-8

Sen, A. 2000. "Merit and Justice". Pp. 5-16 in: Meritocracy and economic inequality, edited by Arrow, K. J, S. Bowles and S. N. Durlauf. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press,.

Solt, F. 2010. "Does Economic Inequality Depress Electoral Participation? Testing the Schattschneider Hypothesis". Political Behavior 32(2): 285-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-010-9106-0

Solt, F., Y. Hu, K. Hudson, J. Song y D. "Erico" Yu. 2016. "Economic inequality and belief in meritocracy in the United States". Research & Politics 3(4): 2053168016672101. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168016672101

Son Hing, L. S., D. R. Bobocel, M. P. Zanna, D. M. Garcia, S. S. Gee y K. Orazietti. 2011. "The merit of meritocracy". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101(3): 433-450. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024618 PMid:21787093

Stouffer, S., E. A. Suchman, L. C. Devinney, S. A. Star y R. M. Williams. 1949. The American Soldier. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Tocqueville, A. 2004. El Antiguo Régimen y la Revolución. Ediciones AKAL.

Walker, I. y T. F. Pettigrew. 1984. "Relative deprivation theory: an overview and conceptual critique". British Journal of Social Psychology 23: 301-310. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1984.tb00645.x

Walzer, M. 1983. Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality. New York Oxford: Basic Books.

Warikoo, N.K. y C. Fuhr. 2014. "Legitimating status: perceptions of meritocracy and inequality among undergraduates at an elite British university". British Educational Research Journal 40(4): 699-717. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3108

Wegener, B. 1990. Equity, Relative Deprivation, and the Value Consensus Paradox. Social Justice Research 4(1): 65-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01048536

Yair, G. 2007. "Meritocracy". Pp. 2954 - 2958 in: G. Ritzer, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, edited by G. Ritzer. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Young, M. 1962. The Rise of the Meritocracy. Baltimore: Penguin Books.




Copyright (c) 2019 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista ris@iesa.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es