Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 76, No 4 (2018)

Actitudes populistas, preferencias políticas y sistemas de partidos en España, Francia e Italia


https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2018.76.4.18.001

Guillermo Boscán
Universidad de Salamanca, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4199-2160

Iván Llamazares
Universidad de Salamanca, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2947-6830

Nina Wiesehomeier
IE School of International Relations, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0134-5647

Resumen


Los sistemas de partidos europeos han sido testigos de la articulación de elementos discursivos populistas por partidos con perfiles ideológicos muy diferentes. En este trabajo analizamos el papel y los correlatos de las actitudes populistas en España, Francia e Italia, tres países que presentan importantes diferencias en términos de la naturaleza de los partidos que articulan discursos populistas. En primer lugar, llevamos a cabo análisis factoriales a fin de explorar el mapa de preferencias de políticas y actitudes políticas en estos tres países. Estos análisis revelan la presencia de una dimensión de actitudes populistas claramente distinguible en los tres países. En segundo lugar examinamos la articulación partidista de las preferencias ciudadanas en los espacios bidimensionales constituidos por las actitudes populistas, las preferencias económicas de izquierda-derecha y las preferencias relativas a la inmigración. Nuestro análisis muestra la presencia de una fuerte asociación, al nivel partidista, entre actitudes populistas y preferencias económicas, y el carácter ortogonal de la relación entre actitudes populistas y preferencias relativas a la inmigración. Finalmente, nuestro análisis de los condicionantes socio-estructurales de las actitudes populistas revela que estas actitudes tienden a estar positivamente asociadas con niveles de ingreso inferiores, con ocupaciones menos cualificadas y con niveles educativos más bajos.

Palabras clave


Actitudes populistas; España; Europa; Francia; Italia; Opinión pública; Partidos políticos

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Referencias


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