Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol 76, No 4 (2018)

El auge de los partidos populistas entre la tecnología, la e-democracia y el proceso de despolitización


https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2018.76.4.18.005

Emiliana De Blasio
LUISS University, Italia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1505-9713

Michele Sorice
LUISS University, Italia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3731-5690

Resumen


En la última década, la crisis económica y la desconfianza en las instituciones democráticas han contribuido a una gran crisis de los partidos políticos en toda Europa. Estas son algunas de las causas que llevaron a la formación de movimientos políticos con características puramente populistas como reemplazo de los organismos intermediarios tradicionalmente deslegitimados. La crisis de la representación es la crisis de la idea de representación posterior a 1945 como una herramienta para aumentar la participación popular. Hemos notado una convergencia entre algunos llamamientos populistas a la democracia directa y los enfoques neoliberales más radicales que pretenden reducir la participación de la gente, incluso si apelamos a algunas formas de “representación sustituta”. Los antecedentes teóricos de este documento se basan en las relaciones entre la “representación sustituta” y la institucionalización de los movimientos neopopulistas, que se transformaron rápidamente en partidos neopopulistas. En otras palabras, podemos destacar la extraña unión de narraciones tecnológicas sobre democracia directa con mitos de tecnocracia y la superposición de tecnopopulismo con democracia directa y “democracia electrónica directa” (que es profundamente diferente de democracia electrónica participativa y deliberativa). El objetivo del documento es analizar las conexiones entre las formas emergentes de populismo (como el tecopopulismo), la retórica sobre la importancia de la comunicación digital para el mejoramiento de la democracia y los procesos de despolitización.

Palabras clave


Despolitización; e-democracia; hiper-representación; populismo; tecnopopulismo

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